The Chernobyl nuclear power station continues to constitute a danger. It is connected with the slow destruction of the old sarcophagus which covers the fourth ruined power unit. This process can lead to leakage of radiation.
What is the Exclusion Zone? The exclusion zone is the area from which was evacuated population in 1986. What kinds of zones exist?
- The zone of unconditional (obligatory) resettlement. This area has suffered from heavy contamination with long-lived radionuclides. The density of soil contamination exceeds pre-accident level. The determined radiation dose could exceed 5.0 mSv (0.5 rem) per year over the dose that person received in the pre-accident period;
- The zone of guaranteed voluntary resettlement. This area has soil pollution density exceeding the pre-accident level. Where the set dose of radiation could exceed 1.0 mSv (0.1 rem) per year over the dose that person received in the pre-accident period;
- The zone of enhanced radiation monitoring. This area of soil contamination exceeding the pre-accident level. This zone investigate if the estimated radiation dose exceeding 0.5 mSv (0.05 rem) per year over the dose she received in the pre-accident period.
Initially, the population was evacuated in a radius of 30 kilometers according to a predetermined plan, after the disaster at the Chernobyl atomic station. Later, it turned out that the radiation spread is uneven. The harmful elements are settled in the form of spots.
Therefore, on the territory of Belarus, the resettlement lasted until 1992. Although, in some place closer than 30 km distance from the Chernobyl, the local population could return to their dwellings. In view of the fact that the radiation background was normal on some terrain. As a result, the evacuation zone has difficult form and meandering boundaries.
Chernobyl zone of alienation is under the constant observation and protection by the military services. The person who wants to cross its borders is necessary to obtain a special permit. In addition, a guide has to accompany visitors.
Getting around this area is only possible on a pre-approved route. Law prohibits take away of whatsoever items outside the quarantine zone. At the exit from the protected area, the guards checked the clothes and personal belongings of visitors using the dosimeter.
However, the restrictions do not stop the so-called “stalkers”. “Stalkers” are illegal tourists who prefer to explore the exclusion zone independently. In order to prevent such cases of illegal visits to the exclusion zone, local security placed the checkpoints on all perimeter. In course of time, the government is going to reduce it to a minimum: to replace the stationary post by auto patrols.
Zone of alienation and zone of resettlement, what is the difference?
The alienation zone is an area nearer to the Chernobyl NPP. There is no human activity because of the high levels of radiation. Within the limits of the exclusion zone, there are a lot of military equipment, which the liquidators used in the aftermath of the accident. It remained at the old place as materials exposed high levels of radioactive pollution.
If to talk about evacuation, in the resettlement zone carried limited human activities. On this terrain, the specialists are working on problems of waterlogging and afforestation. They have planted mainly pine forests.
Let us consider an example how the delimitation of zones looks like in reality (practically). There are no self- settlers in the Chernobyl area of Belarus. There is Tulgovichi village, 50 km from Chernobyl plant. In fact, it gets in the evacuation zone. The village has settled out in 1991.
However, 8 people, mainly elderly, did not want to leave their houses. In addition, certain people stayed in some of the villages on the border of the resettlement zone. They were allowed to stay. The authorities left them electricity and wired telephone communication. A doctor and an auto-bench come to them. Also, people get mail there.
From time to time, the commission conducts clarification of the boundaries of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. A few years ago, in the refinement of boundaries, some villages were made outside the evacuation zone. Even that part of the village Tulgovichi in which live the rest of the people is not formally a resettlement area. On the map of Chernobyl exclusion zone, this village looks like an inhabited island in the middle of the zone.
How big is the Chernobyl exclusion zone of exclusion in Ukraine?
Around the Chernobyl NPP within a radius of 30 km was created exclusion zone, called the Chernobyl zone. From this area, it was evacuated thousands of people from 186 settlements of Ukraine and Belarus. There are some general data about Chernobyl exclusion zone:
- Chernobyl exclusion zone size: 2600 km2;
- the length of the perimeter is 402.3 km2;
- the level of radioactive contamination of the Chernobyl atomic power station, from 0.39 to 18.3 microsieverts per hour (measurements of SSE ChNPP of 25 February 2015).
The most territory of the zone Chernobyl is separated in Ukraine. There were 75 depopulated habitations and 90 thousand of the populace. In the area, they left their homes, the graves of relatives, historical and cultural monuments. In Chernobyl quarantine zone there are hundreds of burial of radioactive rubbish. It does not exist technology of their deactivation.
The zones of exclusion Pripyat and Chernobyl are deserted too. Only in township Chernobyl, workfolk fag away limited time. They follow the state of shelters on the station (in 2000 decisively closed atomic plant) and betreuen Chernobyl zone of exclusion. Administration and workers (approximately 5,000 people) live in Slavutych.
Data about Ukrainian Chernobyl exclusion zone map in numbers:
- the percentage of the territory is covered by forests – 50%;
- the percentage the area is deposits (formerly agricultural lands) – 30%;
- the perimeter length – 439.2 km (including the border with the Republic of Belarus – 154.5 km.);
- the perimeter length on land 402.3 km, on water – 36.9 km;
- Chernobyl exclusion zone residents (self-settlers) amount 300 to 500;
- 311 kinds of vertebrates animals (17 of them included in the Red Book of Ukraine);
- 12 objects of natural reserve fund (total area of 21 km2);
- the amount of checkpoints – 9;
- the number of control-dosimetric places – 5;
- the length of roads (which are served) – 536 km;
- the amount of bridges – 12 (road – 10, rail – 1);
- the length of river network – 260 km (including river Pripyat – 60 km);
- the quantity of water protection facilities – 50 units;
- the length of flood control dams – 18.2 km;
- the sum of places of radioactive waste disposal – 3;
- the sum of places of temporal localization of radioactive waste – 9.
Are there Chernobyl life in the dead zone?
In the years that have passed since the catastrophe, specialists constantly work on reducing of radioactive contamination in Ukraine. On the exclusion zone Chernobyl, the commission makes regular monitoring of levels and oversee the influence of radionuclides in different components of the environment and human health.
Now Chernobyl exclusion zone map is represented like a scientific ground. Also, Chernobyl exclusion zone map is represented like a conservation area. This reserve function in the closed mode. In exclusion zone Chernobyl are forbidden any kinds of industrial activity.
In Chernobyl exclusion zone wildlife is widely represented. There are natural sights, reserves and parks. For example:
- Polesye State Radiation Ecological Reserve;
- “Pripyat” National Park;
- Red Forest (near Chernobyl);
- Tree-cross (exclusion zone Chernobyl town).
As we already mentioned, specialists create artificial swamping areas by closing drainage canals and implement forest planting. Waterlogging and afforestation reduce the likelihood of fires and reduce the transfer of radionuclides dust raised by the wind.
On Chernobyl exclusion zone map is fixed research station. It was founded in 1993 near the village of the Masai (12 kilometers from the atomic plant). Usually, two scientists live at the station in shifts of 10-12 days per month. The scientific station is located in an area with very high levels of radioactive pollution. The expert supervises the meteorological situation, as well as flora and fauna.
In conclusion, we can say that there is Chernobyl life in the dead zone. There are the variety of plants and animals. Moreover, their population increases. The area is very polluted and dangerous, but human absence influences on the rebirth of nature and the animal world. Chernobyl exclusion zone challenge day by day. It is little incremental changes, but it is better than nothing.
Do you want to have a look before visit Chernobyl dead zone? There is computer game “Arma 3 Chernobyl zone” that can illustrate Chernobyl zone map in virtual reality. Nevertheless, it is better to come and see in your own eyes!