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What caused the Chernobyl disaster in 1986: short scenario

What caused the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl?

  • On the ground of human error,
  • The desire of some engineers to perform a testing in the powerhouse,
  • Going against the prohibition issued by the body in charge of nuclear safety.

It was on the night of April 25th to 26th that this experiment took place. This test was cause of Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. To begin with the short scenario of the greater Chernobyl cause of the crash.

During the experiment, a first error what caused Chernobyl catastrophe: a mistake in calculations. Respectively to the computations, the unit had to reach a capacity of 800 megawatts. However, the calculation was false. Seeing only 30 megawatts, the workers decided to extract the moving bars. The function is to stoppage the system on the chance of an incident.

The capacity gained momentum very quickly. A few small explosions occurred. Then, it was the big burst. The blast turned over the concrete slab (1,000 tons) which served as the roofing of the edifice. It projected onto the reactor, engendering a gigantic fire.

The vented unit dispersed its radiologic stuff into the milieu.
In such way the specialists describe the situation what caused Chernobyl bang. It is the general image. Nevertheless, there are many causes of Chernobyl disaster. The committed errors by operating personnel of Chernobyl what caused it. Moreover, a malfunction of protection systems, unreliable design, and much more compiles a list “Chernobyl nuclear disaster causes”.

Let us try to investigate what caused Chernobyl nuclear disaster. The information will touch upon the different spheres. All factors that could have an influence will be introduced here. They are scientific, social, political, etc.

A series of errors what caused the Chernobyl nuclear disaster

1. On the morn of 25 April, a testing of the block 4 was appointed for a routine maintenance operation. This testing of the unforeseen trouble of the capacity supply consists of such purposes:

  • cutting off the capacity supply to the turbine,
  • with an eye to verify if it would retain sufficient capacity,
  • start the water pumps used to chill the core.

2. At 2:00 p.m., the alarm system of refreshing was disconnected in expectancy of the trial. Apropos, in disturbance of the basic principles of security!

3. The fourth unit’s capacity was reducing as expected from 1000 to 700 MWt. Such indicators of capacity held at 0:05 (April 26).

4. Then, the capacity went on to fall. Against to the conditions envisaged by the experimental outline. At 0:28, an operator mistake instigated the dropping of capacity to 30 MWt. This drove to the intoxication by the xenon. For instance, the stockpiling of xenon-135 absorbs neutrons and disrupts the process of corpuscular disintegration.

5. The trial continued while the core was very difficult to master (at 1:23). A series of faults and bad choices on the part of the engineers adduced a temperature rise. The radiolysis of the water created the blend of hydrogen and oxygen. In the issue, it was amenable for the small explosions.

6. The explosion – what caused the Chernobyl disaster – occurred at one hour twenty tree minutes and forty-four seconds. The upper part of the core undefended to the open air. Hence, the graphite catches blazed. The intense warmth in the core sustained the fire. This process was mainly due to the radiologic disintegration of the cleavage produces. Finally, it pulled up only on 9 May. Radioactive dust and gasses were spreading for 10 days.

7. Two hours later the crash, the technicians experienced the first symptoms of the emitting (malaise, vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea, burns). At 6 am, their condition was so alarming that the medicians took them to the hospital. Unfortunately, many of them perished in the days that followed.

Chernobyl disaster causes of the seriousness of the crash

The seriousness of the failure is due to several factors of a technical and human nature (what caused the Chernobyl disaster):

  • the model of the Chernobyl block is unstable below 25% of its normal capacity of use. Naturally, at this level, it tends to get carried away and becomes hard to manage,
  • engineers poorly studied one of the emergency safety systems initiated in extremis.
  • the graphite envelope has favored the development and propagation of a very violent fire. Evidently, it facilitated the diffusion in the ambience of highly radioactive elements,
  • the reactor was not installed in a special tank to avert leakage of radiologic material. Such a tank would have slowed the outflow into the environment,
  • the specialists identified half a dozen human errors. Undoubtedly the personnel was insufficiently informed of the adventurous nature of some of its interventions,
  • the international experts revealed that the test involved several serious derogations from the permanent safety rules.

Perhaps the fear not failing to conform the instructions gotten from Moscow. The government commanded the workers to dismantle the essential safety systems. Either, the engineers received the plan; they violated rules of security for fulfilling it.

Furthermore, the driving force was the social and political spheres in those times. They had an impact too. The absence of a democratic social structure has led to a drawback of control of society over the functioning of powerhouses and a culture of security. Let us discuss probable political reason what caused the Chernobyl disaster.

Political causes of Chernobyl disaster

In the middle of the Cold War, the military plutonium function of the RBMK lent an urgent character to the projecting, building and function of the reactors. It did not allow the “time wasting” that would have involved to the improvements. Nevertheless, they were necessary for the safety of these reactors. Engineers and scientists were subject to one objective: to produce military plutonium as fast as possible.

The budgetary problems acted in the same method. There was no question of reducing spending. Simply, the experts had to do in conformity with such points:

  1. with the available funds,
  2. make as promptly as possible,
  3. a maximum quantity of the items,
  4. the best military quality.

Six days after the blast, at a sitting of the Politburo: “Despite the emergency and the causes of the Chernobyl disaster… We are facing for our socialist obligations. That is why we will launch to the construction reactor N 5 very soon.”

In the USSR, there was the specific closed culture. Their system of security required the compartmentalization of attainments. No one could hold all of it and integrate all aspects of operational security. In civilian nuclear matters, this Soviet secrecy continued until 1989.

Moreover, there is another, additional, point of view. Some scholars had a rigorously sincere speech. Others, also very competent, had more motives dictated by their own zest than by the concern for scientific objectivity.

Other scholars did not have the courage and rigor that is why they accepted political power. Even rare researchers encouraged the certain unhealthy decisions. As an outcome, the struggles for domination replaced the debates of technical, technological and scientific ideas.

To sum up what caused the Chernobyl disaster

So, what was the cause of Chernobyl disaster? This question is a few wrong. Because there are “Chernobyl disaster causes”. It was not only one reason what caused the Chernobyl disaster. Let us, one more time, enumerate the roots what caused Chernobyl.

Unfortunately, the experiment and some unplanned actions cause Chernobyl failure. Nevertheless, the experts supposed to apply it mainly to the non-nuclear section of the facility. However, the engineers conducted the process without adequate interchange of intelligence and timing between:

  • the test team,
  • personnel answerable for the operation.

For this reason, the precautions of the defense in the test program were insufficient. The operating personnel was not alerted to the aftermath and to potential danger. It was one of Chernobyl cause, too.

The drawback of coordination and awareness were the result from an inadequate “security culture”. These factors provoked the workers to execute a number of interventions. They diverged from the established safety procedures.

Therefore, they led to a potentially fatal situation what caused Chernobyl disaster. In addition, the existence of notable imperfections in the projecting and construction amplified with the impact of this series of interventions.

The defects in the projecting were not on the strength of an ineptitude of the personals. They resulted from the bureaucratic dictatorship. Previously, the soviet dictatorship controlled all rulings, including in the field of security.

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